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The ruins of great cities do not tell us everything about the people who built them. In these mud-walled streets, a mystery, 5000 years old, still lingers. The key to it may lie with the river Indus, a mystical silver serpent that rises in the Himalayas and uncoiled through an immense landscape. People settled on its banks despite the flood. They tamed the rivers and transformed the desert into Gardens. But what do we really know about them? A century of archaeological digs still hasn’t solved the mystery. This civilization flourished for five hundred years then vanished into historical limbo, but it left behind a sacred heritage.
At the end of a hard day in 1920, Professor Rd Benarjee excavated the ruins of a gigantic city Mohenjo Daro. In Europe, archeologists reacted with astonishment or incredulity. European scholars had always downplayed the extent of early Asian civilizations. Since then, no less than a thousand sites have been discovered in a region covering a million square kilometers. The Indus, born of the Himalayan snows and bounded by Pakistan and India, is 3,000 kilometers long. Its valley was home to a flourishing civilization.
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For a long time, our image of this civilization was blurred. The first archaeologists thought they had discovered cities of children. They unearthed toys, dice, whistles, and marbles. The people seemed oblivious of death and war. They appeared a carefree, happy population, the Arcadians of the Indus. Mohenjo Daro lay on the banks of the Indus in the Sindh province of southern Pakistan. 2,000 BC, this land was settled by newcomers from the border regions of ancient Persia. Today it is desert. But on this spot, they founded the largest city of the Indus civilization with 40,000 people and an area of a square kilometer
Mohenjo-Daro is an ancient city of Indus Valley Civilization built almost 2000 B.C.E years ago. It is suited 30 Km north of Larkana city in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
Archaeologists initially visited Mohenjo Daro in 1911. Several unearthings happened during the 1920s through 1931. Little tests occurred during the 1930s, and consequent delves occurred in 1950 and 1964.
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During its glory days from around 2500 to 1900 B.C., the city was among the most imperative to the Indus development. The city spread out over approximately 250 acres of land (100 hectares) on a movement of slopes, and the Great Bath and a related enormous structure included the tallest hill. With no proof of kings or lords, Mohenjo Daro was likely represented as a city-state, maybe by elected authorities or elites from every mound.
The authentic name of the city is overlooked, albeit one researcher believes it may have been known as Kukkutarma, or “The City of the Cockerel” (a.k.a., Rooster City).
View of Mohenjo Daro
The streets reflect the genius of their builders. The city layout is a model of ancient town planning. Residential blocks are defined by long straight arteries crossing at right angles. The main Street is never less than 9 meters wide. It’s easy to imagine it filled with colorful crowds. Imagine the archaeologists surprised when they discovered that the entire city had a complex water management system. It had 80 public toilets. In the residential areas, every house had a tiled bathroom and its own well. Sewers serviced the whole city. In a unique system for a center, four thousand years old drains for wastewater gutters and water collectors were dug in the main street. In cul-de-sacs and smaller streets, wastewater was poured into bottomless jars. Some crossroads have brick containers for rubbish disposal. The most spectacular discovery was made at the top of the city on a huge brick platform; the people of Mohenjo Daro built a great bath. For their daily ablutions, they came to this pool. Roundabout it was a gallery with fountains.
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Artefacts Found From Mohenjo Daro
The statue Dancing young lady found in Mohenjo Daro establishes a fascinating relic some 4500-years of age. The 10.8 cm long bronze statue of the moving young lady, found in 1926 from a house in Mohenjo Daro, had been British paleologist Mortimer Wheeler’s preferred statuette, as he referenced in numerous interviews.
The seated male statue, or “Minister King” (even though no proof exists that either clerics or rulers governed the city), That 17.5 cm tall model speaks to another relic which has turned into an image for the Indus valley progress. Archaeologists found the model in Lower town at Mohenjo-Daro in 1927, found in a strange house with fancy brickwork and a divider specialty, lying between block establishment dividers, which once held up a story.
Current UNESCO Status
UNESCO assigned Mohenjo Daro a status World Heritage Site. The most extensive ongoing work at the site has concentrated on endeavors at the preservation of the standing structures, embraced by UNESCO as a team with the Department of Archeology and Museums, just as different outside experts. In December 1996, conservation work at the 500-section of land site suspended in the wake of financing from the administration and worldwide associations ran out, as indicated by an occupant prehistorian.
In April 1997, the UN Educational, Scientific and Culture Organization (UNESCO) subsidized $10 million to a venture to be directed more than two decades to shield the Mohenjo Daro ruins from flooding. That venture has been a triumph up until this point. UNESCO’s endeavors to spare Mohenjo Daro has been one of the critical occasions that drove the association to set up World Heritage Sites.
What ended the Mohenjo Daro
Correctly what finished the Indus Valley Civilization—and Mohenjo Daro—is likewise a puzzle.
Some archaeologists recommend that the Indus River changed course, which would have hampered the neighborhood farming economy and the city’s significance as a focal point of exchange and trade.
However, no proof exists that flooding obliterated the city, and the town wasn’t wholly surrendered; therefore few archaeologists argue that a changing waterway course doesn’t clarify the breakdown of the whole Indus human progress.